Das Problem mit Mikroplastik

Kunststoff hat nicht nur Probleme in der Herstellung, sondern auch wenn es in den Umlauf gebracht wird. Plastik landet nicht nur da, wo es soll, also in Plastikflaschen, Tüten oder Verpackungen, sondern auch dort wo es eigentlich nicht hingehört. In der Natur. In den Meeren gibt es fünf große Müllstrudel. Der bekannteste davon ist der „great pacific garbage patch“, der ungefähr so groß ist wie die Mongolei. Dort sammelt sich eine große Menge an Plastik, wir alle kennen die Bilder. Aber das ist nicht der einzige Ort, wo Kunststoff im Meer existiert. Die Plastikmüllmenge hat sich in der arktischen Tiefsee in den letzten zehn Jahren verzwanzigfacht. Auch im Mittelmeer und in der Nordsee sammeln sich große Mengen Mikroplastik.

Im Mittelmeer befinden sich circa sieben Prozent des Mikroplastiks der Welt. In der Nordsee sind es durchschnittlich 11 Kilogramm Müll pro Quadratkilometer. Gründe für die hohe Müllmenge sind unter anderem küstennaher Tourismus, maritime Industrie, Schifffahrt und Fischerei. Durch die ganzen Kunststoffe werden viele Tiere bedroht. 54 der 120 Arten meerlebender Säugetiere, die auf der Roten Liste der gefährdeten Arten sind, nehmen Plastikmüll auf oder verheddern sich darin, was mitunter zum Tod führen kann.

Aber nicht nur im Meer ist Mikroplastik ein großes Problem. Immer mehr wissenschaftliche Aufmerksamkeit bekommt die Verunreinigung von Äckern in Deutschland mit Mikroplastik. Man geht davon aus, dass diese 4- bis 23-mal höher ist als die im Meer. Mikroplastik gelangt unter anderem auf die Äcker durch den Einsatz von Plastik in der Agrarindustrie, wie zum Beispiel Spargelfelder, die mit einer Plastikplane abgedeckt werden. Dazu kommt aber noch, dass in vielen deutschen Gemeinden mit Klärschlamm gedüngt wird, der eine größere Menge Mikroplastik enthält. Dadurch, dass Mikroplastik direkt in unsere Lebensmittel gelangt, nehmen wir es auf. Dies hat zur Folge, dass es sich auch in unserem Körper anlagert und weitreichende negative Konsequenzen hat.

Insgesamt muss man leider festhalten, dass sich Plastik immer mehr auf unserer Welt ausbreitet und erhebliche Folgen für das gesamte Ökosystem und den Menschen hat.

Quellen:

https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/2020-02/Plastikatlas%202019%204.%20Auflage.pdf

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